Sides $\overline{AB}$ and $\overline{AC}$ of equilateral triangle $ABC$ are tangent to a circle at points $B$ and $C$ respectively. What fraction of the area of $\triangle ABC$ lies outside the circle?

Distinct points $P$, $Q$, $R$, $S$ lie on the circle $x^{2}+y^{2}=25$ and have integer coordinates. The distances $PQ$ and $RS$ are irrational numbers. What is the greatest possible value of the ratio $\frac{PQ}{RS}$?

There are 10 horses, named Horse $1$, Horse $2$, … , Horse $10$. They get their names from how many minutes it takes them to run one lap around a circular race track: Horse $k$ runs one lap in exactly $k$ minutes. At time $0$ all the horses are together at the starting point on the track. The horses start running in the same direction, and they keep running around the circular track at their constant speeds. The least time $S > 0$, in minutes, at which all $10$ horses will again simultaneously be at the starting point is $S=2520$. Let $T > 0$ be the least time, in minutes, such that at least 5 of the horses are again at the starting point. What is the sum of the digits of $T?$

How many triangles with positive area have all their vertices at points $(i,j)$ in the coordinate plane, where $i$ and $j$ are integers between $1$ and $5$, inclusive?

Amelia has a coin that lands heads with probability $\frac{1}{3}$, and Blaine has a coin that lands on heads with probability $\frac{2}{5}$. Amelia and Blaine alternately toss their coins until someone gets a head; the first one to get a head wins. All coin tosses are independent. Amelia goes first. The probability that Amelia wins is $\frac{p}{q}$, where $p$ and $q$ are relatively prime positive integers. What is $q-p$?

A square with side length $x$ is inscribed in a right triangle with sides of length $3$, $4$, and $5$ so that one vertex of the square coincides with the right-angle vertex of the triangle. A square with side length $y$ is inscribed in another right triangle with sides of length $3$, $4$, and $5$ so that one side of the square lies on the hypotenuse of the triangle. What is $\tfrac{x}{y}$?

Alice refuses to sit next to either Bob or Carla. Derek refuses to sit next to Eric. How many ways are there for the five of them to sit in a row of 5 chairs under these conditions?

How many integers between $100$ and $999$, inclusive, have the property that some permutation of its digits is a multiple of $11$ between $100$ and $999?$ For example, both $121$ and $211$ have this property.

For certain real numbers $a$, $b$, and $c$, the polynomial $$g(x) = x^3 + ax^2 + x + 10$$ has three distinct roots, and each root of $g(x)$ is also a root of the polynomial $$f(x) = x^4 + x^3 + bx^2 + 100x + c.$$

What is $f(1)$?

Let $S(n)$ equal the sum of the digits of positive integer $n$. For example, $S(1507) = 13$. For a particular positive integer $n$, $S(n) = 1274$. Which of the following could be the value of $S(n+1)$?